Prof Parker said he wanted to challenge the traditional view of synthetic biology which is “focused on genetic manipulations of cells”. Instead of building just a cell, he sought to “build a beast”.
The two groups at Caltech and Harvard worked for years to understand the key factors that contribute to jellyfish propulsion, including the arrangement of their muscles, how their bodies contract and recoil, and how fluid dynamics helps or hinders their movements.
Medusoid-jellyfish grabs The swimming behaviour of the Medusoid closely mimics that of the real thing
Once these functions were well understood, the researchers began to reverse engineer them.
They used silicone to fashion a jellyfish-shaped body with eight arm-like appendages.
Next, they printed a pattern made of protein onto the “body” that resembled the muscle architecture of the real animal.
They grew the heart muscle cells on top, with the protein pattern serving as a road map for the growth and organisation of the rat tissue. This allowed them to turn the cells into a coherent swimming muscle.
A team of Stanford University researchers has managed to create the world’s first complete computer model of an organism.
The team – led by Prof. Markus Covert – leveraged data from more than 900 scientific papers to account for every molecular interaction that takes place in the life cycle of Mycoplasma genitalium, the world’s smallest free-living bacterium.
No, this isn’t a make-believe place. It’s real.
They call it “Ball’s Pyramid.” It’s what’s left of an old volcano that emerged from the sea about 7 million years ago. A British naval officer named Ball was the first European to see it in 1788. It sits off Australia, in the South Pacific. It is extremely narrow, 1,844 feet high, and it sits alone.
Do some animals DESERVE to go extinct? The parrot that can’t fly, mistakes predators for mates and only wants sex every two years
To solve a mystery, sometimes a great detective need only study the clues in front of him. Like Agatha Christie’s Hercule Poirot and Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes, Tomomi Kiyomitsu used his keen powers of observation to solve a puzzle that had mystified researchers for years: in a cell undergoing mitotic cell division, what internal signals cause its chromosomes to align on a center axis?
“The findings suggest that, despite our sophisticated mental capabilities, our responses are in fact driven by these more primitive processes when in danger.
Lead author, Professor Ian McLaren of the University of Exeter, said: ‘This research clearly shows that, in these circumstances, our reaction to a fear-provoking stimulus depends on a primitive response caused by associative learning. This is something we share with other animals.
‘This could have important practical implications. Now that we know that associative processes are implicated in our response to fear-inducing stimuli, we need to consider the implications for the ways in which we treat anxiety and phobias.’”
Did you learn to talk “turkey”?
They sort of taught me their language. Researchers had identified 25 to 30 calls in wild turkeys that I was familiar with. But I learned that wild turkey vocabulary was much more complex than I had realised – within each of their calls were different inflexions that had specific meanings. For example, they had an alarm call for dangerous reptiles, but what I learned was that in that call there were specific inflexions that would identify a species of snake. Eventually when I heard a certain vocalisation I knew without question they had found a rattlesnake.
This experiment is part of a research programme which has proved that members of the crow family, known as corvids, aren’t just among the cleverest birds, they are smarter than most mammals.
In fact, their intelligence rivals that of apes — who, along with crows, are able to do tasks that three and four-year-old children have difficulty with.
“Breakthrough: By studying zebra-fish, scientists worked out exactly how the freshwater species uses retinoic acid to re-grow parts of its body”
“Researchers have for the first time used stem cells to grow neuromuscular junctions between human muscle cells and human spinal cord cells – the key connectors used by the brain to communicate and control muscles in the body.”
“Right now we rely a lot on animal systems for medical research but this is a pure human system,” says research professor Nadine Guo. “This work proved that, biologically, this is workable.”
“DO YOURSELF A FAVOR, DO NOT WATCH THIS VIDEO!!!! “
Paul LeBlond, former head of the Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences at the University of British Columbia, told Discovery News: ‘I am quite impressed with the video.
‘Although it was shot under rainy circumstances in a bouncy ship, it’s very genuine.’
The Cadborosaurus willsi, meaning ‘reptile’ or ‘lizard’ from Cadboro Bay, is an alleged sea serpent from the North Pacific thought to have a long neck, a horse-like head, large eyes, and back bumps that stick out of the water.
Sightings have been reported for years.
Not content with letting you spy on your neighbours with Street View or hover over far-away countries Google has now developed a new browser that maps out the entire human body.
Called Google Body Browser, the hi-tech 3D application has been hailed as a breakthrough in the study of anatomy that could revolutionise our understanding of the human body and even fast-track medical research.
The gadget, yet to be officially released, lets you explore the human body in much the same way you can navigate the world on Google Earth.
A team at the University of California has successfuly implanted E coli bacteria with the key molecular circuitry to act as computers.
They’ve given the cells the same sort of logic gates, and created a method to build circuits by ‘rewiring’ communications between cells. It means cells could be turned into miniature computers, they say.
The research has already formed the basis of an industry partnership
with California-based Life Technologies. The genetic circuits and design
algorithms developed at UCSF will be integrated into a professional
software package as a tool for genetic engineers, much as computer-aided
design is used in architecture and the development of advanced computer
The next step, says Voigt, is to be able to program cells using a formal language similar to computer programming languages.
The idea that birds create magnetic maps is supported by studies like those on Australian silvereyes done by the Wiltschkos in the 1990s. They exposed the birds to a strong pulse that altered the magnetism of iron crystals in their beaks but left the eye compass unaffected. In juvenile birds that had just left the nest, this made no difference – they still tried to head in the right direction.
Birds that had migrated before, however, all headed in the wrong direction after the pulse. This suggests that the juvenile birds were relying on the compass in their eyes, whereas the experienced birds were trying to navigate based on their mental magnetic map, using the intensity receptor in their beaks.
Of course in natural situations, birds use a whole range of clues for navigation, not just magnetism. They also use the sun and stars, smells, visual landmarks and perhaps even sounds like waves breaking.
An insight into how they combine these different kinds of information came from a recent study on night-migrating thrushes. When the thrushes were exposed to artificial magnetic fields at sunset, they flew in the wrong direction during the night when released. After seeing the next sunset, however, they corrected their courses. So it appears some birds calibrate their magnetic compasses against the sun each day.
A ‘bullet’ fired by killer immune system cells has been seen in action for the first time.
The protein, called perforin, is used to punch holes in rogue cells that threaten the body.
Scientists used a powerful electron microscope to study how perforin despatches cells that have become cancerous or invaded by viruses.
The holes it blows open allow toxic enzymes to enter the cells and destroy them.
A team from The Scripps Research Institute has revealed the first-ever pictures of the formation of cells’ “protein factories.” In addition to being a major technical feat on its own, the work could open new pathways for development of antibiotics and treatments for diseases tied to errors in ribosome formation. In addition, the techniques developed in the study can now be applied to other complex challenges in the understanding of cellular processes.
Poveştile despre fantomaticul “Chupacabra” circulă în fiecare an, dar oamenii de ştiinţă au reuşit, în sfârşit, să dezlege misterul ce înconjura legendarul animal.